Deaf African-American people have always faced the identity issue of whether they are black first or deaf first. I can remember reading discussions on this issue. Resources are available for deaf African-American people, their families, and teachers.
Deaf African-American OrganizationsThe first and best resource is the organization National Black Deaf Advocates. The NBDA holds annual conferences and has chapters nationwide. Another organization, the National Alliance of Black Interpreters, is for African-American interpreters for deaf and hard of hearing people.
Books on Deaf African AmericansA few books have been written about being deaf and African American:
- One book is Sounds Like Home, a book by a black deaf woman about growing up black and deaf in the South.
- Together with Linwood Smith, Ernest Hairston wrote the book Black and Deaf in America (ISBN 0932666183).
- Another book, which I have not read, is Deaf, Dumb and Black: An Account of the Life of a Family, by Mary Miller-Hall, published by Carlton Press Corp. in 1994.
Notable Deaf African AmericansDeaf African-American Athletes
Deaf African-American Entertainers
Deaf African American Writers
Other Deaf African Americans
Claudia Gordon is an accomplished deaf African-American lawyer.
Historic Deaf African AmericansOne well-known deaf African American in history is Andrew Foster.
Research On Deaf African AmericansSome articles and doctoral theses have been published about deaf African Americans.
- The Gallaudet University library in Washington, DC has a thesis on file, "A resilience model for transition of African American deaf and hard of hearing students through four-year post-secondary programs," by Carolyn Estelle Williamson (2003). Another thesis also on file at Gallaudet University library is "Gender, racial, and deaf identity development and self-esteem in Black, deaf women" by Monica Annette Robb (2002).
- The March 1998 (volume 143, issue no. 1) issue of American Annals of the Deaf had an article on black deaf teenagers, "The association between raceless and achievement among African American deaf students."
- Cambridge Press published the book Cultural and Language Diversity and the Deaf Experience, which includes the article "In Search of Self: Experiences of a Post-Lingually Deaf African-American," by Dianne K. Brooks.
- The National Multicultural Interpreter Project website has downloadable pdfs of a cultural knowledge and sensitivity curriculum, including reference information.
Teachers and Parents of Deaf African AmericansTeachers and parents of deaf African-American children may want to check out the archived Deaf and African American Children article on DeafEd.net. It discusses ethnicity, educational, communication, and cultural needs. There is also a book, Black Deaf Students: A Model for Educational Success, that is based on interviews with nine academically successful deaf African Americans.
Rare Deaf African American MaterialsGallaudet University library also has some rare deaf African American materials that can not be taken out of the library, such as the book The Mississippi School for Negro Deaf, 1950-1951. There are also clippings in the University Archives of articles about deaf African Americans.
Video Material on Deaf-African AmericansGallaudet University library also has a video library, which contains the following sample video materials about deafness and African Americans:
- Black ASL: The Socio-historical Foundations by Drs. Carolyn McCaskill and Ceil Lucas. This is a signed only video presentation from 2008 about a black dialect of American Sign Language, Black ASL.
- Archived editions of Deaf Mosaic online at Gallaudet University also had segments on deaf African Americans. Research of the Deaf Mosaic video library turned up these segments on deaf African Americans:
- Deaf Mosaic #611 had a segment on "I Didn't Hear That Color," a play about deaf African-American culture.
- Deaf Mosaic #404 had a segment on Andrew Foster, who had recently died.
- Deaf Mosaic#112 had a segment on Earnest Hairston.
- Deaf Mosaic #202 had a segment on the late Linwood Smith, Jr.